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Game Plan: Projections Primer




Accurate projections are the holy grail of DFS, the crux of success, and the primary concern of top-ranked players. Used in conjunction with game theory and diversification strategies, accurate projections will give you the best chance of coming out ahead in all your tournaments.

One option is to use third-party projections. There are a lot of sites that offer projections and others that test the accuracy of these sources. Be aware that thousands of other lineups are generated by other players using the same projections, which can lead to certain player combinations being over-owned.The third-party projection approach is optimal if you have limited time to invest into DFS, but if you go this route, I recommend implementing a more contrarian strategy than you would use with my preferred approach of developing your own projections. Third-party projections still have a place in my process—in the form of an accuracy check—but I develop my own projections because I trust myself more than anyone else, and there is a contrarian element built into your process when no one else is using the same information.

To create your own model for every sport from scratch, however, requires an impossible degree of specialization. Luckily, Vegas is here to help. Sportsbooks are a vital source of information for modeling unfamiliar sports. Since the books are willing to take money on set odds, you can infer much from the bets they offer. Incorporating figures like team totals into your model for fantasy sports is a great way to speed up your process. These numbers might not be as accurate as you could make in an ideal world, but they free your time up to focus on other aspects of your model.

The process of creating a game total or a money-line is known as handicapping. Sportsbook employees, with complex algorithms in hand, set the opening total or line. Yet the true accuracy of Vegas doesn’t originate with a single algorithm or even the collective efforts of all sportsbooks. Vegas owes its accuracy to highly sophisticated sports bettors who are identifying inefficiencies in betting markets and taking advantage of them.

Sportsbooks set the line at whatever will make them the most money, so a high volume of money being placed on one side of the bet will change the line the sportsbooks offer for subsequent bets. The more money they allow on a bet, the more efficient the lines will be as professionals make up a higher percentage of the total bets. The accuracy of betting lines is maintained as information continues to emerge, for example, in the form of player injury or weather updates. In fact, this is probably the greatest benefit of using betting lines—the wealth of information that is incorporated into a single line, meaning fewer factors that you will need to adjust for in your own model. To get the full benefit of this information, you should update these numbers close to game time, when they are the most accurate.

Because the margins of error at any given time are small, these bets are reliable sources of information. As I’m writing this, the Pacers-Pistons game tonight has an over-under of 208 and a spread of -2 favoring the Pistons, according to Using this information, you can deduce that the Pacers are expected to score 103 and the Pistons 105 (these numbers are often referred to as “implied team totals”). Furthermore, you can use implied point totals to make educated guesses about the pace of play and other stats. It’s also important to consider the odds offered on each bet. You should adjust the numbers you use in your spreadsheet towards whichever side has odds further in the negative. For instance, in the NHL, if the over-under is 5.5 with the over bet being -125 and the under being +105, you could enter a number slightly higher than 5.5 in your spreadsheet. You can calculate exactly how much to adjust it by a comparison of different sportsbooks over time, like if one set a line of 6 in the same game skewed to the under.

Once you estimate the statistics for the entire game, you can compare those to a team’s average performance and adjust individual players expected performance accordingly. The baseline for players’ projections should, of course, be their historical stats. Although traditional per game or per minutes stats work well, to gain an edge, you’re ideally going to want to sprinkle in some advanced/non-traditional statistics. Not only do they some have superior predictive value but they’re also another way to differentiate your lineups from your competitors. There are a plethora of advanced statistics available on sites such as ESPN, or—many of which I have yet to study—but some of the more helpful stats I’ve found so far are usage for basketball, isolated power (often denoted as ISO) for baseball and routes run for football. But be selective, the vast majority of non-traditional statistics are useless for DFS projections.

With advanced statistics, it’s also important to ensure that you aren’t accounting for the same factors multiple times, which will diminish accuracy. It’s essential to know exactly how each stat is defined so you can properly use it; be careful, some sites use different calculations for the same stats! One example is pace of play in NBA, which has several different definitions depending whom you ask.

Not only will the type of statistic you use be crucial but also the size of sample you select. Larger samples are better than smaller ones, but you’ll have to balance that against decreased accuracy associated with a player being in different contexts or the improvement/decline that occurs with age. As a general rule, you’ll need larger sample sizes for statistics with higher volatility.

Finally, when you create your projections, you’ll want to check them against other sources. Even the best-prepared DFS players miss updates that significantly impact projections. If you don’t want to shell out money for sophisticated projections (be wary of sites offering them for free), you can reference the letter grades I assign to players each day in my rankings. These rankings are based on the actual projections I used to generate my lineups and are updated frequently throughout the day.

Another free resource are the “prop” bets listed on sportsbooks, covering things like passing yards for quarterbacks or points for a NBA player. These numbers are informative as they wouldn’t be offered if they were easily outsmarted. However, these bets should not be treated with the same degree of respect as team totals or moneylines, as the market for them is less efficient than traditional bets. Prop bets aren’t as ubiquitous, sportsbooks cap the dollar amount of each bet and they ban sharp users. As a result, they don’t have equivalent accuracy of a game total. If you are confident in why your projections differ from other sources, that will help guide who you put in your lineups.

If you want to compete in DFS at an elite level, it’s essential that you create your own projections. Because the profit potential of accurate projections is much higher than anyone would reasonably pay for it, these projections are not publicly available. Although the process of creating projections and incrementally upgrading your algorithms has many more growing pains than using third party sources, this approach will give the greatest chance of success in the long term.

A self-proclaimed U.S. history buff, stats enthusiast, and rabid fan of anything Detroit (yes, even the Lions), Awesemo started playing daily fantasy sports in 2013 and never looked back. After graduating with a degree in mathematics from Washington University in St. Louis in 2008, he began developing advanced statistical models and applied his unique skill-set first to poker, then as a full-time DFS player. He has since dominated DFS, becoming a fixture on leaderboards and cementing his position as the top-ranked overall player according to RotoGrinders. Competing in most guaranteed prize pool tournaments, he has ranked in the top 3 across major sports, including NBA, NFL, NHL, PGA, and MLB. He enjoys sharing his knowledge of fantasy sports with new and experienced players alike. Career Highlights: #1 Overall Ranking; 14x FanDuel $100k winner, 11x DraftKings Hundred-Thousandaire; 20x Live Final qualifier. You can contact him on Twitter @awesemodfs or by emailing

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  1. Avatar

    Jay Joyce

    February 7, 2018 at 2:50 pm

    Great article with some very progressive and forward thinking. My question would be; how does an intermediate player apply this information and formulate projections? I agree that all great DFS players have their own projections system, but are there basic steps for one to develop their own?

    • Avatar

      ian tomkiewicz

      February 10, 2018 at 5:04 pm

      100% agree with the person who commented before me. also, “updating your algorithms..”…? uhhh, i dont have any algorithms lol. is this bad?

  2. Avatar

    Ronald Coley

    February 11, 2018 at 10:20 pm

    I agree with you guys, I’d love to be able to create projections. However I’m obtuse in this area. I think I have a set of criteria I would like to use, but have absolutely no idea of how to apply it.

  3. Avatar

    Christine Parks

    February 18, 2018 at 8:47 pm

    Looks like good advice to me. I’m ready to roll.

  4. Avatar

    Evan Zaruba

    February 22, 2018 at 10:56 pm

    Thank you so much. Great idea having rankings, too.

  5. Avatar

    Shannon English

    February 28, 2018 at 9:32 am

    Great article! If you had to purchase projections from a highly creditable source to get started what are a couple of sites that you would suggest?

  6. Avatar

    Danny Ramsey

    March 10, 2018 at 9:46 am

    Thanks for the info on this (and the whole site, actually). I really appreciate you sharing your dfs knowledge with all of us dfs players.

  7. Avatar

    Joe Hdez

    December 18, 2018 at 4:11 pm

    Absolutely agree with using Vegas, except…

    I feel as the amount of information, that IS NOT game related, like how much money is bet on each team historically, etc., skews the numbers. For example, betting the Patriots against the spread has been profitable over the last 16 years. So the ‘houses’ knowing this adjust the numbers the to entice betting on the other side of the bet, thereby throwing off projections based on those numbers.

    Also, in basketball, taking pace differentials and making adjustments for home court at times shows numbers that are more in line with actual results. How much are projections skewed based on how over/unders are bet is a question that if figured out, can make you a lot of money!

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